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2017 Vol. 29, No. 12
Published: 2017-12-20

Crop Science
Animal Science
Horticultural Science
Plant Protection
Environmental Science
Food Science
Biosystems Engineering
 
 
       Crop Science
1957 Effects of different growth stages on nutritional components and processing characteristics of sweetpotato cultivar Xinxiang
LI Chen, XUE Guanwei, HUANG Jingyan, WANG Ningdong, LU Guoquan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.01
This article took sweetpotato cultivar Xinxiang as the test material, which were sampled every 7 days after 70 days of planting at 70, 77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 119 days. The dry matter content, starch content, soluble sugar content, amylase activity, polyphenol content, oil content of sweetpotato chips, water absorption value and iodine value of the whole powder were measured, and the change rules and correlations of each index were analyzed. The results showed that starch content was increasing in different growth stages, and the trend of the dry matter content was similar to that of starch content. Soluble sugar content showed a slow downward trend. At the same time, there was a significant positive correlation between the number of days of growth stages and water absorption value and iodine value of the whole powder, and positively correlated with the oil content of sweetpotato chips. There was a significantly positive correlation between the dry matter content and water absorption value of the whole powder, and soluble sugar content was negatively correlated with iodine value of the whole powder. Therefore, in the growth stages of 77-84 days, the dry matter content was 24.17%, oil content was 23.30%, polyphenol content was low and suitable for sweetpotato chips processing; in the growth stages of 119 days, it was suitable for starch processing with the highest starch rate; in the growth stages of 84 days, it was suitable for roasting and cooking with the highest soluble sugar content.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1957-1962 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (797 KB)  ( 11 )
1963 Effects of application rate of biogas slurry on growth, grain yield and heavy metals contents of rice
SHAO Wenqi, JI Li, SUN Chunmei, JIANG Xiaojian, WEN Tinggang, TANG Jinling, ZHANG Ankang
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.02
To investigate the appropriate application rate and method of biogas slurry on rice, the pig manure from large-scale farms was fermented as fertilizer in the experiment to study the effects of different application rate of biogas slurry on rice growth, yield and heavy metals concentrations. It was shown that when the total amount of biogas slurry was below 750 t·hm-2, the height and tillering ability of rice were improved, while the height no longer increased and tillering ability significantly (P<0.05) decreased when the application amount was above 750 t·hm-2. The application of biogas slurry had little effect on the fluorescence intensity of rice leaf, but inhibited the photosynthetic intensity, such as net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate. Compared with conventional fertilizer treatment, the biogas slurry treatments significantly (P<0.05) decreased rice seed setting rate, filled grain number per panicle and 1 000-grain weight, yet increased the total spike number. The application rate of 600 t·hm-2 was appropriate to improve rice yield and its components. However, the biogas slurry treatments had potential risks for heavy metals accumulation in rice straw, as the contents of heavy metals such as Hg, Cr, Cu, As were increased in rice straw compared with conventional fertilizer. But, this risk was not found in grains. Furthermore, the contents of heavy metals in grain had no significant changes and were all met with the national standard of GB 2762-2012. In general, the application of 600 t·hm-2 biogas slurry (basic fertilizer:topdressing=1:1) was appropriate for rice production.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1963-1969 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (948 KB)  ( 17 )
       Animal Science
1970 Application of multivariate analysis in evaluation of meat quality for local pig breeds
XU Yifei, TIAN Xiaojing, LIU Lixia, GAO Dandan, CHEN Shi'en, LI Mingsheng, LIU Gendi, LIU Yuanlin
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.03
The differences of meat quality among local pig breeds (Bamei, Juema and Yantai black pigs) and Large White were studied by detection of the physichemical indexes and texture parameters. The texture parameters were acquired by TMS-Pro texture analyzer, and the physichemical indexes were detected according to the national standards. The texture parameters, physichemical indexes and the combination of texture parameters and physichemical indexes, were used as input data to perform the principle component analysis, canonical discriminant analysis and cluster analysis, and optimized by stepwise linear discriminant analysis. The results showed that the physichemical indexes were helpful to distinguish meat quality among different pig breeds, and the combination data set integrated more related information to improve the discrimination results. The results provide a new way for the evaluation of meat quality.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1970-1977 [Abstract] ( 1 )   RICH HTML PDF (873 KB)  ( 9 )
1978 Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas putida from hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus×Acipenser schrenckii♂)
YANG Yuanyuan, YANG Yibin, CAO Haipeng, FANG Wei, LIN Hanqun, YANG Xianle, AI Xiaohui
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.04
The isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity of pathogen from the morbid hybrid sturgeon were conducted to provide a reference for control and prevention disease for hybrid sturgeon. The pathogenic bacteria were isolated and purified from liver, kidney, spleen and intestinal tract of hybrid sturgeon. The biochemical identification and 16S rRNA gene sequence determination and the artificial infection test were used to identify whether the strain XY4 was the pathogen, and the antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by K-B method. The results showed that strain XY4 was the pathogens of hybrid sturgeon, the LD50 of the isolate was counted to 1.30×106 cfu·g-1. According to morphological and biochemical characteristics as well as the result of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain XY4 was Pseudomonas putida. Strain XY4 was susceptible to cefadroxil, florfenicol, doxycycline and other 6 kinds of antibiotics. The disease caused by Pseudomonas putida can be prevented by above sensitive drugs in fishery farming.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1978-1985 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (958 KB)  ( 7 )
1986 Effect of Baicalin on expression of Toll-like receptor 2, 3, 4, 7 in Newcastle disease virus-infected CEFs
XU Ruiguang, JIA Yan, HU Liwen, WENG Jiahua, DENG Junliang, HU Yanchun
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.05
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7 gene in NDV-infected cells and the effect of Baicalin on them. NDV infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) was performed. Cytotoxicity of Baicalin was tested by the MTT method. Quantitative expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7 gene were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RTFQ PCR). The results showed that the expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR7 genes were suppressed by NDV in the early infection stage, while their expression were enhanced with the replication of NDV and the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 gene reached the peak level at 24 h. As well as the expression of TLR7 gene reached the peak level at 16 h. The infection of NDV could change the expression of TLR3 gene, but it was not regular. Besides, Baicalin could increase the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 genes in NDV-infected cells and show the dosage-dependence, which enhanced immune function and possessed anti-NDV activity.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1986-1993 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (954 KB)  ( 16 )
1994 Identification of type Ⅰ fimbriae of Escherichia coli isolated from ducks and genetic characteristics of their FimA and FimH genes
HUANG Shulun, ZHENG Kaiwen, HU Yang, LI Zhangcheng, CHENG Fangjun, SONG Zhenhui, ZHOU Zuoyong, LIU Guolin, LIN Chunfa, LIN Yongrun, ZHANG Tingting
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.06
To study the generation and molecular characteristics of Escherichia coli typeⅠfimbriae from ducks in parts of Sichuan-Chongqing region, the typeⅠfimbriae was identified by MSHA/MRHA test, and their FimA and FimH genes were identified by PCR amplification; The hydrophilicity, antigenicity, and surface probability of FimA amino acid sequences were analyzed by DNAStar to predict antigenic sites. The MSHA/MRHA test results showed that the positive rate of MSHA was 44.3%. PCR results indicated that the positive rate of FimA and FimH were 63.41% and 100%, respectively. Amino acid sequences of FimA and FimH were deduced and contrasted respectively with comparative Escherichia coli strain ECOR61 and ECOR45. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that there were 19 different positions in FimA amino acid sequences. However, there were 1-2 different positions in FimH amino acid sequences, it was believed that FimH amino acid sequences were highly conserved. The antigenic sites of FimA amino acid sequences were predicted. The results indicated that antigenic epitopes of most strains were distributed in 84-88, 142-146 and 149-150 amino acids. In addition, some other strains' antigenic epitopes appeared at 101-105 and 130-134 amino acids.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 1994-1999 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (669 KB)  ( 30 )
2000 Research of individual dairy cattle recognition based on wavelet transform and improved KPCA
ZHANG Mandun, SHAN Xinyuan, YU Yang, MI Na, YAN Gang, GUO Yingchun
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.07
To speed up the modernization of stockbreeding and overcome the defects of the low accuracy of individual dairy cattle recognition with traditional methods, the traditional KPCA (kernel principal component analysis) method was improved from two angles of reducing the covariance matrix dimension and introducing category information. The research of combining wavelet transform with improved KPCA was applied for recognition dairy cattle based on the texture feature. Firstly, the normalized dairy cattle image was decomposed by wavelet transform to obtain four sub-graphs. Then an improved KPCA algorithm was used for feature extraction of each sub-graph and the feature matrix was obtained by weighting the feature components. Finally, multi-class SVM algorithm was built for training and classification. The pre-collected 20 dairy cattle's videos were converted into image sequence and 20 000 images were chosen to form experiment data sets. Through several groups of experiments for three important parameters of the wavelet fusion weights, the number of fusion vector groups and the feature dimension, values were set and then experiments of individual dairy cattle recognition were performed using different algorithms. The results showed that it took only 4.20 s for the proposed method reach the accuracy of 96.31%, which has obvious advantages over other algorithms. It can be appropriately applied to the field of dairy cattle individual recognition with high performance and low cost.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2000-2008 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (986 KB)  ( 13 )
2009 Identification of linear B cell epitope for E protein of duck Tembusu virus
ZHANG Lin, YU Bin, NI Zheng, CHEN Liu, YUN Tao, YE Weicheng, HUA Jionggang, CUI Yanshun, ZHANG Cun
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.08
This experiment was conducted to identify B cell epitope of E protein of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). In this study, a linear B cell epitope 385LVGSGKGQI393 (EP385) for DTMUV E protein were identified by truncated expressing the third domain of E protein (Domain III, DIII), which is recognized by monoclonal antibody BD10 prepared by the purified DTMUV YY5 strain as antigen, and then by scanning the peptide library which containing 15 overlapping segment of truncated and fused expressed DIII with BD10. Then, the immunogenicity of EP385 was verified by fusion expressed in E. coli and immunized mice to prepare a polyclonal antibody which was confirmed to be capable of recognizing viral E protein. The identification of B cell epitope for the E protein of DTMUV may lead to the preparation of a DTMUV peptide vaccine and the development of specific serological diagnostic methods.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2009-2014 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (694 KB)  ( 15 )
       Horticultural Science
2015 Breeding thermo-tolerant strains of Lentinula edodes by UV mutation
WU Xiaoyu, DENG Baiwan, CHEN Wenqiang, XIE Xiuchao
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.09
In order to breed new varieties of Lentinus edodes which can bear high temperature by UV mutation, a wild high temperature resistant L. edodes sample XG-1 was used as the starting strain. New varieties of high temperature resistant L. edodes were screened by different UV irradiation time and intensity, and the cultivated strains with better comprehensive characters were cultivated. Mutant XG-5, known as Jinxi 1 was screened when the mutation time was 25~30 s and mutation intensity was 12~16 W; Its fruited temperature was up to 38 ℃, so it belonged to high temperature resistant varieties. In leaning cultivation mode, the field of Jinxi 1 could reach 1.013 kg per bag (polyethylene bag size 17 cm × 33 cm), and the biotransformation rate reached 92.09%.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2015-2022 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (1045 KB)  ( 15 )
2023 Development and genetic analysis of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers of Clematis
CHEN Wenchao, SU Wanhan, LIU Zhigao, JI Mengcheng
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.10
The whole chloroplast genome sequence of Clematis fusca var. coreana from GeneBank database was analyzed, and 11 cpSSR primer pairs were designed based on that. In addition, the transferability of the 11 pairs of cpSSR primer in different species and cultivars of Clematis were studied. The results showed that 67 cpSSRs were distributed across the whole chloroplast genome, and most of them located in the area 1 088-41 445 bp and 50 135-127 217 bp, which generally consisted of a single base A/T. All of the 11 pairs of cpSSR primer could be successfully cross-amplified in different species and cultivars of Clematis, which indicated that the 11 primer pairs for cpSSR markers had good transferability in Clematis. The average number of alleles (Na) was 10.91, effective number of alleles (Ne) was 5.40, major allele frequency (MAF) was 0.31, and polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.79. In addition, clustering result of UPGMA of 55 samples based on cpSSR data was discussed.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2023-2031 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (878 KB)  ( 8 )
2032 Design of products for precipitation meteorological index insurance of Myrica rubra—a case study of Cixi City
DING Yeyi, YANG Dong, CHEN Xinlei, HUANG Helou, LUO Xiaosan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.11
The number of continuous precipitation days in harvest period was employed to evaluate the meteorological damage, as precipitation has a significant effect on the yield of Myrica rubra. The yield damage model of Myrica rubra was established based on the relationship between yield loss rate and number of continuous precipitation days from 1995 to 2015. The yield loss rate was calculated by yield separation and de-trend processing. The risk probability of different grade precipitation index was calculated with Weber distribution model based on long sequence historical precipitation data. Reference to the disaster model and risk probability, the insurance products and pure insurance rate under different pay trigger conditions were designed to provide technical support for agricultural insurance's sustainable development. We propose that the index insurance products are operational, and can provide scientific reference for precipitation insurance business of Myrica rubra in Ningbo city.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2032-2037 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (708 KB)  ( 13 )
2038 Establishment of comprehensive evaluation system of fruit quality and its application on Huangguogan fruit
YE Shuang, XIONG Bo, QIU Xia, SUN Guochao, HUANG Shengjia, FU Jialing, WANG Zhihui
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.12
In order to make the index weight value in the comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality more scientific, and improve the objectivity and reasonability of the comprehensive evaluation results, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each evaluation index, and a fruit quality index level library was set up, based on this calculation of each index score, and combined with the weight to calculate the comprehensive score. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation system of fruit quality was established. In this process, two scales of analytic hierarchy process (1-9 scale method and 0.618 scale method) were screened, and this evaluation system was applied to the selection of Huangguogan superior individual. The results showed that the 0.618 scale method could smooth each evaluation index, and when the evaluation index reached 5, the consistency of the judgment matrix constructed by the 0.618 scale method was significantly better than that of 1-9 scale method. Combined with the test datum, this experiment established Huangguogan fruit quality index level library. The fruit quality evaluation system was used to evaluate 162 Huangguogan plants, and 36 Huangguogan plants with excellent fruit quality were screened out. In the fruit quality evaluation system, it was more reasonable and accurate to use the 0.618 scale method to construct the judgment matrix.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2038-2050 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (1076 KB)  ( 15 )
       Plant Protection
2051 Occurrence, epidemics dynamic, green prevention and control technology of rice bacterial leaf blight in Southern China
WANG Huadi, CHEN Jianping, YAN Chengqi, SHEN Ying
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.13
According to the history data on occurrences of rice bacterial blight collected from national incidence(1960 to 2016 year), Zhejiang (1987 to 2016 year), Guangdong, Hainan, Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces (1987 to 2014 year), southern and eastern China were thought to be the endemic areas of rice bacterial blight. The disease was most prevalent during the 1970s-1990s but just occurred intermittently from the mid and late 1990s to 2010. In recent years, the disease re-occurred in some regions and displayed a prevalent trend, becoming a potential regional risk. By analyzing the relationship of disease occurrence with bacterial sources, rice cultivars, climate conditions, water and fertilizer management, the main factors affecting disease epidemics were discussed and the method of systematic prediction and forecast was simplified, and also put forward a method of "two check two rules governing”. High effective agricultural chemicals such as Zinc thiazole, Thiodiazole-copper, Thio copper and so on were selected. The study proposed a green integration method for effectively control the disease, which included the early monitoring and forecast, promotion of resistant varieties, seedling control, water and fertilizer management, emergency prevention and control using agricultural chemicals. These measures were applied in large area of rice production for effectively controlling the disease in China.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2051-2059 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (1273 KB)  ( 11 )
2060 Construction of yeast two-hybrid cDNA library of white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)
XUE Jin, LI Jing, YANG Jian, TANG Yan, LIANG Yao, CHEN Jianping, ZHANG Hengmu
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.14
White-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a major migratory pest that feed on rice plants and transmit Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in a persistent manner. In order to screen interactions between the genes of WBPH and SRBSDV, a cDNA expression library of WBPH was firstly constructed into the yeast plasmids using Gateway technique in this study. The results showed that the primary library consisted of 1.72×107 CFU (colony-forming units), the sizes of most inserts were 500-1 500 bp in length, and the recombinant frequency was about 95.8%; the titer of secondary cDNA library was 1.73×107 CFU, the sizes of most inserts were 400-2 000 bp in length, and the recombinant frequency was 100%; the titer assays showed that the cDNA library was approximately 5.09×107 CFU for yeast two-hybrid cDNA library of Y187; PCR assays showed that the average length of insertions were 750-2 000 bp and the recombinant frequency of the cDNA library was high up to 100%, random sequence analysis of 36 clones showed that 22 of the clones were different in GenBank. These results consistently indicated that the cDNA library could be used for screening interactions in the yeast two hybrid experiments, which laid the foundation for studying on the interactions between white-backed planthopper and SRBSDV.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2060-2067 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (884 KB)  ( 9 )
2068 Isolation of an endophytic bacterial strain with antifungal activity from wild jujube
DENG Zhenshan, WEI Tingting, SU Rui, GAO Fei, LIU Yuzhen, CHEN Bangkai, MO Darui, HE Xi, XU Hongxia
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.15
Using tissue separation and grinding coated method, the endophytes were screened out to study the active substances in the leaves of wild jujube endophytic microbes and species identification, and the filter method was used to test the antibacterial activities. The fermented product extraction of strain C-22-1 was extracted again and again to gain the antimicrobial substances. The single fermentation conditions of strain C-22-1, including carbon source, nitrogen source and time, were optimized according to the size of inhibition zone. The antibacterial activities of fermented liquid of C-22-1 and the antimicrobial substances were detected to seven human common pathogenic bacteria; the strain C-22-1’s antibacterial circle diameter reached 29 mm to Staphylococcus albus. Qualitative test showed the strain C-22-1 produce saponins. Single factor optimization results showed that best carbon, nitrogen source and time was glucose, yeast extract and 8 d, respectively. Strain C-22-1 produce antimicrobial substances, which was initially identified as triterpenoid saponins.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2068-2076 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (1162 KB)  ( 11 )
2077 Diversity of endophytic fungi in Bletilla striata
XI Gangjun, LI Jingbao, SHI Jun, HAN Zhengmin
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.16
To research the diversity of endophytic fungi in Bletilla striata, DNA of endophytic fungi was extracted from the fresh root of Bletilla striata, and ITS rDNA library was constructed. Then, this library was analyzed by high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatics. The results showed that endophytic fungi of Bletilla striata were mainly distributed in Basidiomycota (83.4%) and Ascomycota (14.3%), the other 2.3% could't be identified. Dominance index of endophytic fungi were Basidiomycota (0.834 1), Ascomycota (0.142 6), Zygomycota (0.000 3), and unidentified (0.022 9). At Class and Order levels, the proportion of (Agaricomycetes) Sebacinales was 83.4%, (Discomycete) Pezizales was 11.4%, (Leotiomycetes) Helotiales was 2.1%, unidentified was 2.3%. At Family level, Serendipitacea was 83.4% and Pezizaceae was 11.4%. At Genus level, Piriformospora was 83.4%. Analysis of Shannon index, Chao1, Observed species and Simpson showed that diversity of endophytic fungi in Bletilla striata were uniformly distributed.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2077-2083 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (758 KB)  ( 6 )
       Environmental Science
2084 Effects of corn-apple rotation on enzyme activity and pH value in rhizosphere soil of apple trees
FAN Linjuan, LIU Qizhi, WANG He, XU Zhenxiang, LI Weihua
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.17
In order to clarify the functional mechanism for alleviating the apple continuous cropping obstacles under corn-apple rotation system,the impact of corn plantation years (1 a or 2 a) on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and pH value of continuous cropping apple orchards were studied. Rhizosphere soil of apple orchard in flowering stage, fruitlet stage, expanding stage and maturity stage was collected, respectively. It was shown that rhizosphere soil urease activity, phosphatase activity, invertase activity and soil pH value all showed a trend of non-continuous cropping of apple>corn (2 a)-apple rotation>corn (1 a)-apple rotation>continuous cropping of apple in all tested apple growth stages. Compared with apple continuous cropping, rhizosphere soil urease activity in the treatment of corn (2 a)-apple rotation and corn (1 a)-apple rotation increased the most in the maturity stage, which were 105.95% and 78.30%, respectively. The activity of soil phosphatase in the treatment of corn (2 a)-apple rotation and corn (1 a)-apple rotation was significantly increased by 26.45% and 23.06%, respectively, in fruitlet stage, and by 37.07% and 29.19%, respectively, in expanding stage, and by 45.59% and 18.77%, respectively, in maturity stage. The activity of soil invertase increased the most in expanding stage, reaching 53.11% and 47.29%, respectively. Meanwhile, compared with apple continuous cropping, of which pH value was 6.86, the rhizosphere soil pH in corn (2 a)-apple rotation and corn (1 a)-apple rotation was increased to 7.57 and 7.25, respectively. In summary, apple continuous cropping reduced soil enzyme activities and pH value, yet corn-apple rotation could remarkably increase soil enzyme activities and pH value. Corn (2 a)-apple rotation had better alleviation effect than that of corn (1 a)-apple rotation on obstacles of apple continuous cropping.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2084-2090 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (818 KB)  ( 20 )
2091 Soil environmental quality of typical protected farmlands in Hangzhou
NI Zhongying, SHI Yijun, XIE Guoxiong, ZHANG Mingkui
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.18
In order to understand soil environmental quality of protected farmlands in Hangzhou, soil samples were collected from 27 representative protected vegetable farmlands to investigate the contents of 8 kinds of heavy metals and 8 kinds of antibiotics, and the obtained data were compared with those of the adjacent open farmlands. The results showed that the average concentrations of soil Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the protected farmlands were 17.28%, 18.36%, 25.00%, and 17.82% higher than those of the open farmlands, and the total concentration of the investigated antibiotics in the protected farmlands was 4.91 times of that in the open farmlands. The accumulation of heavy metals and antibiotics in the protected farmlands was higher than that in the open farmland. The average concentrations of soil Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg and As in the protected farmlands with application of both chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers were 54.86%, 26.76%, 16.80%, 14.36%, 50.56%, and 9.63% higher than those in the protected lands with application of only chemical fertilizers. The total concentration of investigated antibiotics in the protected farmlands with application of both chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers was 6.67 times of that in the protected farmlands with application of only chemical fertilizers. The results indicated that application of organic fertilizer containing heavy metals and antibiotics was an important reason for the accumulation of above pollutants in the protected farmlands.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2091-2096 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (626 KB)  ( 11 )
2097 Sustainability evaluation of reclaimed cultivated land ecosystem in coal mine wasteland
DING Cui, MA Shouchen, LI Mingqiu, SUN Rui, SONG Xiangping, DUAN Peiling
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.19
To evaluate the sustainability of reclaimed cultivated land, the soil and crop indexes were determined by sampling in subsidence-free area, stable subsidence area and unstable subsidence area in Zhaogu mine area. The 13 indexes measured were divided into soil physicochemical index, soil microbial index and crop index. Then, the sustainability index was calculated based on the triangle area method. It was shown that the sustainability index of reclaimed land in subsidence-free area (1.80) was higher than the threshold of sustainability index (1.30). The sustainability index in the stable subsidence area (1.24) was close to the threshold of sustainability index, yet the sustainability index in the unstable subsidence area (0.88) was lower than the threshold of sustainability index. In summary, the more stable the subsidence state is, the more sustainable the reclaimed is for agricultural production.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2097-2103 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (729 KB)  ( 14 )
2104 Effects of composting temperature and manner on degradation of natural hormones during cattle manure composting
WANG Daiyi, YU Yang, ZHANG Fengsong, LI Xingyuan, GOU Tizhong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.20
In order to achieve the innocuous treatment and resource utilization of livestock manure, fresh cow dung and straw were used as pile materials. Four types of hormone (progesterone , androstenedione, 17β-estradiol and estrone) were incubated in cow dung under different temperature (38, 50, 70 ℃) to study the influence of composting temperature on the degradation rate of 4 hormones under either aerobic or anaerobic composting conditions. It was shown that the degradation rate of 4 hormones ranged from 67.6% to 100% under different temperature, and the degradation rate ranged from 81.9% to 100% at 50 ℃. The degradation rate of estrone and androstenedione were higher under aerobic composting than that under anaerobic composting. The tested temperature (38-70 ℃) had little effect on degradation of 17β-estradiol, progesterone and androstenedione in cow dung. But, the degradation of estrone was inhibited under 70 ℃. Giving compost maturity and removal of disease-causing organisms, aerobic composting under 50 ℃ seemed to be the best option.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2104-2108 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (649 KB)  ( 11 )
2109 Study on effectiveness evaluation of ecological restoration of Taihu National Wetland Park
ZHU Ying, LIN Jingya, ZHAO Yue, FENG Yuqing, ZHANG Minglian
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.21
Based on the ecological restoration theory and the effectiveness evaluation framework,this paper chose the corresponding indexes from four aspects: environmental quality,species diversity,landscape pattern and social service,and established an index system to evaluate the ecological restoration effect of wetland park. The park is an empirical assessment of the ecological restoration of Taihu National Wetland Park. The results showed that the ecological restoration performance index of Taihu National Wetland Park increased from 34.10 points in 2005 to 73.95 points in 2015,the improvement of wetland park ecosystem status was more obvious,and the effect of ecological restoration was remarkable. To ensure the healthy development of wetland park,Taihu National Wetland Park paid attention to the ecological restoration; meanwhile, the method of multi-disciplinary research and appropriate development were used to play the ecological benefits and social benefits.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2109-2119 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (1226 KB)  ( 12 )
       Food Science
2120 Dynamic variation rules of protein degradation in flue-cured tobaccos
WANG Wanneng, XIANG Gangliao, ZHAI Yuchen, MA Kuoyan, DAI Ya, TAN Lanlan
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.22
To analyze and clarify the regularity of protein change in different flue-curing and different flue-curing time of tobacco leaves, and to provide theoretical basis for improving tobacco leaf quality, the dynamic changes and distribution characteristics of tobacco leaves were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and other experimental techniques. The degradation rate of tobacco protein was different at different flue-curing time, and the content of tobacco protein was decreased from 19% to 9% at 0-50 h after flue-curing, and it tended to be gentle in the later flue-curing phase. The molecular weight distribution of leaf protein was between 11.8 and 90.5 ku, and there were significant differences in the content of tobacco protein in the upper, middle and lower leaves. The content of large and small molecular weight protein in the upper leaves was higher than that in the middle and lower leaves, and the content of middle molecular weight in the lower leaves was higher than the others. The degradation rule of different types of protein in different flue-curing stages of tobacco leaf were different.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2120-2127 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (864 KB)  ( 12 )
2128 Optimization of duck bone enzymolysis by flavourzyme
LIU Guangxian, ZHU Shuilan, ZHOU Jinying, ZHU Xuejing, FENG Jianxiong
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.23
To comprehensively utilize the byproduct of duck bone, duck bone was selected as the study object. By measuring the antioxidant activity and hydrolysis degree, it was confirmed that the flavourzyme was the optimal enzyme. The effects of substrate concentration, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, pH value and reaction time on duck bone hydrolyzation were studied. Futhermore, the optimal process for duck bone hydrolyzation was obtained by orthogonal test as follows: substrate concentration 2%, enzyme amount 7 000 U·g-1, reaction temperature 45 ℃, pH value 6.0, and reaction time 5 h. Under this condition, the hydrolysis degree of duck bone reached 17.10%.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2128-2133 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (675 KB)  ( 4 )
       Biosystems Engineering
2134 Study on simulation analysis of Camellia fruit picking and its bud damage with tooth comb dial knife machine based on ANSYS Workbench
RAO Honghui, LUO Shiting, YU Jiajia, ZHANG Liyong, LIU Muhua
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.24
Camellia bud damage in the process of harvest by Camellia fruit picking machine is the most urgent problem. In order to reveal the theory of bud damage in mechanical picking of Camellia and to obtain the better picking parameters of dial knife, the effect between the tooth combing device and the Camellia and Camellia bud was analyzed. Firstly, the 3D model between tooth comb dial knife and Camellia fruit and bud were established in the ANSYS Workbench, the interaction between the dial knife device and Camellia and Camellia bud was simulated, simulation results showed that the critical initial velocity and the acceleration of the Camellia fruit peeling off were 5 m·s-1 and 2 m·s-2 respectively, and the critical initial velocity and the acceleration of Camellia bud dropping were 3 m·s-1 and 2 m·s-2, respectively. Secondly, the damage of Camellia bud was analyzed by the dial knife device at different initial velocity and acceleration, the maximum equivalent stress and strain of Camellia bud was slightly decreased with the increase of acceleration, the maximum strain in the X-direction of Camellia bud was slightly increased with the increase of acceleration, and the maximum strain in the two directions of Y and Z was slightly decreased with the increase of acceleration. As the dial knife thickness became 1.5 times, 2.0 times, 2.5 times and 3.0 times, the critical initial velocity of the dial knife to peeling off Camellia fruit were 3.4, 2.5, 2.0 and 1.7 m·s-1, respectively, and the critical acceleration of peeling off Camellia fruit were 1.3, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 m·s-2, respectively. The simulation results showed that with the increase thickness of the dial knife, the dial knife critical initial velocity and acceleration will be reduced, which can enhance the practicability of this machine.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2134-2141 [Abstract] ( 0 )   RICH HTML PDF (972 KB)  ( 13 )
2142 Plant species recognition based on leaf image algorithm
BI Liheng
DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-1524.2017.12.25
In order to improve the recognition rate of plant species, leaf image algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the plant species characteristic model was established, including leaf color, shape and texture characteristics. Secondly, relations of input, output and hidden layer of radial basis function neural network was built. Thirdly, the numbers of radial function, center and width was optimized, weighting parameter was calculated based on gradient descent method, and learning rate was adaptively adjusted. Finally, plant species recognition process was given. Plant leaf color, shape and texture characteristic numbers of simulation were selected as 6, 7 and 7, the three characteristics average recognition rate of improved radial basis function neural network algorithm was 93.5%, higher than single and two characteristics, the shape characteristic had maximum recognition rate.
2017 Vol. 29 (12): 2142-2148 [Abstract] ( 1 )   RICH HTML PDF (918 KB)  ( 13 )
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